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Berlin's history started in Stone Age, and the history of modern Berlin started in the 13th century with the founding of the trading posts of Berlin by itinerant merchants in the area of today's Nikolaiviertel, in the Mitte district. In the 1440s, Elector Friedrich II of Brandenburg established the rule of the Hohenzollern dynasty, which was to last until Kaiser Wilhelm II's escape from Potsdam in 1918. Berlin's importance increased in 1470, when the elector moved his residence there from Brandenburg and built a palace near the present Marx-Engels-Platz. The Great Elector's son, Friedrich I, the first Prussian king, made the fast-growing Berlin his capital, and his daughter-in-law Sophie Charlotte encouraged the development of the arts and sciences and presided over a lively and intellectual court. Friedrich II sought greatness through building and was known for his political and military savvy. Berlin was an industrial giant before WWI and aftermath the revolt broke throughout Germany. In January 1919 the Berlin Spartacists Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg were murdered by remnants of the old imperial army, which entered the city and brought the revolution to a bloody end. In August 1945 the Potsdam Conference sealed the fate of the city by finalising plans for each of the victorious powers - the USA, Britain, Germany and the Soviet Union - to occupy a separate zone. In June 1948 the city was split in two when the three western Allies introduced a western German currency and established a separate administration in their sectors. On 9 November 1989 the Berlin Wall opened, and on 1 July 1990 the Wall was being hacked to pieces. The Unification Treaty between the two Germanys designated Berlin the official capital of Germany, and in June 1991 the Bundestag voted to move the seat of government from Bonn to Berlin over the next decade.
When to go Berlin
The visitors fascinate Berlin whole of the year, but the best suited time to arrive is between May and September, when the weather is most reliable. Things are engaged in high season, but despite the crowds, summer is a lovely time to be here because much of life moves outdoors. Rain is, however, possible in any month, so come prepared. From November to early March, skies tend to be gloomy and the mercury often drops below freezing. On the plus side, there are fewer visitors and shorter queues. Avoid major holidays like Easter, Christmas and New Year and special events such as Love parade - unless, of course, that's what brings you here in the first place. All shops, banks, government offices and post offices close on public holidays.mE7LlY1vilU
The combined effects of Atlantic Ocean climate and climates of Eastern Europe leaves the Berlin moderately cool and humid. The coldest month of Berlin is December and February. When the winds blow from Russia it can get mighty chilly, with temperatures dropping below freezing. Generally, though, winters are relatively mild. More than half of the city's annual inversion days (when stagnant cold air traps warmer air below, bringing about smog) occur in these months. The month of July and August are the warmest time of Berlin with not chokingly hot. The September and October are the nicest months of Berlin with the bonus of autumn foliage. The trees are in bloom and the outdoor café season kicks off in the month of May and June, are popular months too, though rain is more likely at this time.
There are some flights to the city, Berlin. Arrival from the overseas have no direct facility to land, Landon is only the sole exception. Tourist can come to Berlin indirectly from the hub like Frankfurt, Amsterdam, Paris and Landon. Berlin has three airports. Tegel (TXL) primarily serves destinations within Germany and Western Europe. Schoenefeld Airport (SXF) mostly operates Internationalflights to/from Eastern Europe, Asia, Africa and the Americas. The third airport is the central but tiny Tempelhof (THF) in southern Kreuzberg. It became famous as the main landing strip for Allied airlifts now fields many regional flights. Berlin is well-connected to the rest of Europe by long-distance bus. Most buses arrive at and depart from the ZOB (Zentraler Omnibusbahnhof), the central bus station, in Charlottenburg, opposite the stately Funkturm (radio tower). The German train system is justifiably known as the most efficient in Europe and connects Berlin with the rest of Germany and other European countries. Until completion of the main central station at Lehrter Bahnhof (currently projected for 2006), most trains will continue to go through Bahnhof Zoo in the western city centre (for destinations to the west of Berlin) and Ostbahnhof in the eastern centre. The F10, shuttles between Kladow and Wannsee and making quite a scenic trip, and you can use regular public transport tickets to board it. The U/S Bahn is the most efficient way to travel around Berlin. There are 10 U-Bahn and 13 S-Bahn lines which operate from 04:00 to just after 24:00. Exceptions are the U1 and the U9 which operate a limited service (about two trains an hour) all night. Berlin's buses are rather slow, but comfortable. Bus stops are marked with a large 'H' and the name of the stop. Drivers sell tickets and can give change. The next stop is usually announced or displayed on a digital board. Driving in Berlin is easier than in most big cities, but it's no walk in the park, either.
Best Locations Berlin
The Berlin city located at the middle of the Bundesland (federal state) also known as the Mark of Brandenburg from the medieval time. The city spills itself from the north and the south of the Spree River and has some of the magnificent parkland that comprises a third of the Municipalarea. The veritable mother lode for art lover, architecture and artefacts, great cluster of museums will keep the most dedicated culture addict happy. The Bauhaus Archive/Museum of Design is devoted to the members of the Bauhaus School aimed to unite art with everyday functionality, from doorknobs and radiators to the layout of entire districts and apartment blocks. The Zoologischer Garten is Germany's oldest zoo. It is located in Tiergarten, Berlin's green lung, which began life as a hunting ground for the Great Elector, Friedrich Wilhelm. Brandenburger Tor(Brandenburg Gate) once marked the impenetrable boundary between East and West Berlin. Built in 1791, Brandenburger Tor has often been a centre stage for Berlin's militant political rallies. Deutsches Technikmuseum, The museum's 14 departments examine technology throughout the ages - from printing and transport to computers - with interactive stations. Berlin's Judisches Museum, An architectural work of art, the building and its contents are a major destination in Berlin.
The Germany's cultural hub, Berlin is full of dynamic and Internationalscene, ranging from highbrow pursuits like opera, dance and theatre to pop and experimental culture in form of dance clubs, live music venues and cinemas. The Berlin has Pubs and Bars as an integral part of its night-life. Galerie Bremer, serving up sophisticated drinks and modernist art in equal measures. It's named after Rudolf's wife, artist Anja Bremer. Junction Bar, here you'll be showered by everything from traditional jazz to jazz-rap, along with blues, soul and funk. Bar jeder Vernunft, Entertainers appearing at this wonderful venue have a veritable cult following and shows - often with a camp or bizarre bent - are often sold out. Oxymoron, a cocktail lounge changes stripes with the movement of the sun. By day, the opulent baroque salon in front - complete with plump velvet sofas, gold-leaf mirrors and chandeliers - caters to the café crowd. After dark, it morphs into an eats-and-lounge act before turning into a chic club around the witching hour. Reingold, cocktail lounge; food on-site this erstwhile East Berlin bar has been dusted off to reveal a chic sheen underneath. If you're looking for an unemployed dot-commer living off earlier venture share capital (and aren't we all?), try here. The bar does impressive cocktails and oysters, while the Hi-Fi does low-key techno.
City of Destination Berlin
The Berlin has the darks in its history. Not only at the time of Hitler, but also it was the battle for the cold war. Due to its fields of new skyscrapers and hip clubs and fashion boutiques, post millennium Berlin has recast itself as the Continent's capital of cool. Berlin is reconciling itself to its notorious history and moving with confidence into its future. The reunited city of Berlin is once again the capital of Germany. Berlin was almost bombed out of existence during World War II; its streets reduced to piles of rubble, its parks to muddy swampland. But the optimistic spirit and strength of will of the remarkable Berliners enabled them to survive not only the wartime destruction of their city, but also its postwar division, symbolized by the Berlin Wall. Before the war, the section of the city that became East Berlin was the cultural and political heart of Germany, where the best museums, finest churches, and most important boulevards lay. The walled-in East Berliners turned to restoring their museums, theatres, and landmarks (especially in the Berlin-Mitte section), while West Berliners built entirely new museums and cultural centres.
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